Clouds Their Formation, Optical Properties, And Effects

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  • Жанр:  Geography
  • Объём: 454 страницы

Аннотация

Clouds: Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects deals with the formation of clouds as well as the theoretical and experimental aspects of their microphysical and optical properties. Discussions are grouped under the headings of structure of clouds, interaction of passive radiation with clouds, and interaction of active radiation with clouds. This book is organized into three sections and has 11 chapters. After analyzing the spatial and temporal scales involved in the formation and organization of clouds and precipitation, this text examines the microphysical measurement techniques used in probing the microstructure of clouds. The reader is then methodically introduced to the microstructure of atmospheric clouds and precipitation; the formation and structure of fog; and basic shortwave characteristics of &quote;ideal clouds. The temporal behavior of clouds and their interaction with the radiation field are considered, along with the possible effects of cloud models in general circulation studies. The remaining chapters explore the light scattering properties of ice crystals and the radiative characteristics of ice clouds; the laser measurements in clouds; the transmission and reflectivity of ice clouds by active probing; and the theory of multiple scattering of laser beams in clouds. The book concludes by presenting the measurements of the temporal and spatial spreading of a blue-green pulse through clouds and fogs as a function of optical thickness and receiver field-of-view. This text will be helpful to advanced researchers and program managers in terms of reviewing the state of the art and identifying those areas requiring further research efforts.

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